Privilege separation user “sshd” does not exist

If you encounter this error while starting openssh server, it means either /etc/passwd file or some entries for sshd user does not exist in the /etc/passwd file.

To fix this error, you need to

Add this line into /etc/passwd,

sshd:x:74:74:Privilege-separated SSH:/var/empty/sshd:/sbin/nologin

and this line into /etc/group


It should fix the problem.

Installing JPEGTRAN on Linux [cPanel]

JPEGtran allows to optimize JPEG images.

You can always find latest packages on their website.

root@server # cd /usr/local/src

root@server [/usr/local/src]#

Go to and download latest version.

root@server [/usr/local/src]# wget

root@server [/usr/local/src]# tar -zxf jpegcrop.tar.gz

root@server [/usr/local/src]# cd jpegcrop

root@server [/usr/local/src]# cd jpeg-9a/

root@server [/usr/local/src]# ./configure

configure: creating ./config.status
config.status: creating Makefile
config.status: creating jconfig.h
config.status: jconfig.h is unchanged
config.status: executing depfiles commands
config.status: executing libtool commands cd /usr/local/src/

root@server [/usr/local/src]# sudo make install

root@server [/usr/local/src/]# jpegtran -h
usage: jpegtran [switches] [inputfile]
Switches (names may be abbreviated):
-copy none Copy no extra markers from source file
-copy comments Copy only comment markers (default)
-copy all Copy all extra markers
-optimize Optimize Huffman table (smaller file, but slow compression)
-progressive Create progressive JPEG file

You are done!!

Create an FTP user on a cPanel server using ssh [shell]

Sometimes, it becomes essential that you need to add additional ftp user in cPanel but you can not access cPanel may be because cPanel is not working or license has expired. The only option leaves for you to create account from the shell using ssh.

Here are some commands that you can use to create account from shell.

You need to login into server using root and execute following command.

/usr/local/cpanel/bin/proftpd_passwd -a :::::/home//public_html/ftp:/sbin/nologin


= your cPanel username
= group_id of cPanel user; you can obtain from /etc/passwd
= user_id of cPanel user; you can obtain from /etc/passwd
= the user to be used for login for example if ftpuser = ftp then to login use

After you execute this command, you will get result something like below.

UUID =500
UGID =500
OWNER =ftp
SHELL =/sbin/nologin

After that run


You are done!!

1 2 3 4